Genetic diseases of cows

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Congenital chondrodystrophy in a calf, showing classics signs of dished face, superior brachygnathia and limb and spine deformities. Courtesy Dr Peter White
Characteristic double muscling in a Belgian Blue bull
This two-headed calf is an incomplete set of twins. This bicephalic calf had one body. The conformation may lead to dystocia. Vaginal delivery is effected by partial fetotomy if the calf is dead, or after severance of the umbilical cord.
Tibial hemimelia in a Shorthorn calf showing failure of pelvic fusion and an abdominal hernia.
Achondrogenesis in a stillborn calf

Genetic disorders in cattle are extremely common.

Listed below are some of the more common genetic diseases in cats.

Visual disorders

- Dermoids
- Coloboma
- Cataracts
- Microphthalmos
- Microcornea
- Microcoria
- Heterochromia iridis
- Microlentia
- Retinal dysplasia
- Anterior segment dysgenesis
- Acorea

Skin disorders

- Albinism, associated with Chediak-Higashi syndrome
- Alopecia areata
- Ectodermal dysplasia
- Epitheliogenesis imperfecta
- Hypotrichosis
- Ichthyosis
- Polydactyly
- Protoporphyria

Hormonal disorders

- Hypothyroidism
- Dwarfism

Neurological disorders

- Arthrogryposis multiplex
- Neuropathic hydrocephalus
- Progressive degenerative myeloencephalopathy - 'weaver syndrome'
- Spinal muscular atrophy
- Simmental encephalomyelopathy - Simmental cattle
- Progressive myelopathy - Murray Grey cattle

Physical disorders

- Achondrogenesis
- Adontia
- Anasarca
- Arthrogryposis multiplex
- Cleft palate
- Complex vertebral malformation
- Congenital chondrodystrophy
- Congenital muscular dystonia
- Congenital myoclonus (Neuraxial edema)
- Contracted flexor tendons
- Contractural arachnodactyly (Fawn calf syndrome)
- Double muscling
- Dwarfism
- Osteopetrosis
- Chediak-Higashi syndrome
- Cleft palate
- Cryptorchidism (retained testicle)
- Deafness
- Epitheliogenesis imperfecta
- Hair lip
- Hernias
- Hip dysplasia
- Hypotrichosis
- Marfan's Syndrome
- Megaoesophagus
- Neuropathic hydrocephalus
- Osteogenesis imperfecta
- Osteopetrosis
- Polymelia
- Umbilical hernia
- Multicystic renal dysplasia
- Polydactyly
- Syndactyly
- Testicular hypoplasia
- Tibial hemimelia

Myopathies

- Double muscling
- Lipomatous myopathy

Enzyme-deficiency disorders

- Oligodendroglial dysplasia - Progressive ataxia in Charolais bulls
- Factor XI deficiency
- Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
- Citrullinemia
- Uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency
- Complex vertebral malformation
- Gangliosidosis - neuronal beta-galactosidase deficiency
- Mannosidosis
- α-mannosidosis in Aberdeen Angus, Murray Grey, Simmental, Galloway and Holstein cattle.
- β-Mannosidosis in Saler cattle
- Maple syrup urine disease
- Marfan syndrome
- Simmental encephalomyelopathy
- Progressive myelopathy - Murray Grey cattle
- Mucopolysaccharidosis (type IIIb)
- Chediak-Higashi syndrome - systemic tyrosinase deficiency
  • Fat/lipid storage diseases
- Hyperlipidemia - lipoprotein lipase deficiency
- Congenital myoclonus (Neuraxial edema)
- Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis - neuronal lipid accumulation
- Niemann-Pick disease - neuronal accumulation of cholesterol
  • Protein storage diseases
- Uridine monophosphate synthase