From Dog

Vitamin B12 deficiency (hypocobalaminemia) is defined as a serum cobalamin concentration <150 ng/L.

This disorder is frequently associated with enteropathies such as canine pancreatic exocrine insufficiency[1][2] but breed variability in normal levels of serum cobalamin may complicate a diagnosis.

The presence of hypocobalaminemia is also a prognostic indicator of poor prognosis in dogs with lymphoma[3].

Predispositions for hypocobalaminaemia have been observed in the Shar Pei, Staffordshire Bull Terrier and German Shepherd[4].

Folate deficiency is frequently observed as a concurrent phenomenon in dogs.


  1. Berghoff N et al (2013) Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid concentrations in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease. Am J Vet Res 74(1):84-89
  2. Procoli F et al (2013) Comparison of Histopathologic Findings in Duodenal and Ileal Endoscopic Biopsies in Dogs with Chronic Small Intestinal Enteropathies. J Vet Intern Med Feb 9
  3. Cook AK et al (2009) Prevalence and prognostic impact of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with lymphoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 235(12):1437-1441
  4. Grützner N et al (2012) Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010). J Vet Diagn Invest Sep 26