Immunodeficiency syndrome

From Dog
Gray Collie affected with cyclic neutropenia[1]

Primary hereditary immunodeficiency disorders are uncommon in the dog and most cases of immune dysfunction in dogs can be attributed to primary infectious, inflammatory, allergic or immune-mediated disease.

The most reported immunodeficiency is specific immunoglobulin deficiency, particularly IgA, thought to be due to not an absolute lack of IgA but specific concentration in target organs such as mucosal surfaces, such as is seen in German Shepherd dog with anal furunculosis (IgA deficiency)[2] and lethal acrodermatitis in English Bull Terriers (IgA deficiency)[3], where there is sufficient circulating IgA, but insufficient excretion at the epidermal surface.

IgA deficiency has also been reported in the Shar Pei, Beagle, English Cocker Spaniel, Irish Wolfhound (recurrent rhinitis, pneumonia)[4][5], Rottweiler, Weimaraner (hypertrophic osteodystrophy-associated IgG deficiency)[6][7][8], Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (IgG deficiency), English Bull Terrier, American Foxhound, Cocker Spaniel, Boston Terrier, Basenji and Miniature Dachshund (IgG deficiency related pneumonia)[9].

Secondary causes of immunodeficiency include:

Therapeutic options for animals with primary immunodeficiency disease are limited. Most cases are fatal, but symptomatic and antimicrobial therapy can sometimes prolong life for restricted periods.

Crude immunomodulatory drugs are sometimes administered, but the effects of these are poorly documented.

A range of experimental therapies have been attempted in dogs with cyclic haematopoiesis, particularly recombinant cytokine therapy (e.g., canine granulocyte colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor), and bone marrow transplantation.

References

  1. Pennylane Collies
  2. Peters IR et al (2003) Quantitative real-time RT-PCR measurement of mRNA encoding-chain, pIgR and J-chain from canine duodenal mucosa. J Immunol Methods 275:213-222
  3. McEwan NA et al (2003) Immunoglobulin levels in bull terriers suffering from lethal acrodermatitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 96:235-238
  4. Clercx C et al (2003) Rhinitis/bronchopneumonia syndrome in Irish Wolfhounds. J Vet Intern Med 17:843-849
  5. Leisewitz AL et al (1997) Suspected primary immunodeficiency syndrome in three related Irish wolfhounds. J Small Anim Pract 38(5):209-212
  6. Foale RD et al (2003) Retrospective study of 25 young Weimaraners with low serum immunoglobulin concentrations and inflammatory disease. Vet Rec 153:553-558
  7. Day MJ et al (1997) Low serum immunoglobulin concentrations in related Weimaraner dogs. J Small Anim Pract 38:311-315
  8. Abeles V et al (1999) Hypertrophic osteodystrophy in six Weimaraner puppies associated with systemic signs. Vet Rec 145:130-134
  9. Day MJ (1999) Immunodeficiency disease. In: Clinical Immunology of the Dog and Cat. MJ Day. Manson publishing, London. pp:197-215
  10. Trowald-Wigh G et al (2000) Clinical, radiological and pathological features of 12 Irish setters with canine leucocyte adhesion deficiency. J Small Anim Pract 41:211-217
  11. Hostetter SJ (2012) Neutrophil function in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 42(1):157-171
  12. Snead E et al (2011) Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog. Can Vet J 52(10):1129-1134