Primary hereditary immunodeficiency disorders are uncommon in the dog and most cases of immune dysfunction in dogs can be attributed to primary infectious, inflammatory, allergic or immune-mediated disease.
The most reported immunodeficiency is specific immunoglobulin deficiency, particularly IgA, thought to be due to not an absolute lack of IgA but specific concentration in target organs such as mucosal surfaces, such as is seen in German Shepherd dog with anal furunculosis (IgA deficiency) and lethal acrodermatitis in English Bull Terriers (IgA deficiency), where there is sufficient circulating IgA, but insufficient excretion at the epidermal surface.
IgA deficiency has also been reported in the Shar Pei, Beagle, English Cocker Spaniel, Irish Wolfhound (recurrent rhinitis, pneumonia), Rottweiler, Weimaraner (hypertrophic osteodystrophy-associated IgG deficiency), Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (IgG deficiency), English Bull Terrier, American Foxhound, Cocker Spaniel, Boston Terrier, Basenji and Miniature Dachshund (IgG deficiency related pneumonia).
Secondary causes of immunodeficiency include:
- age-related immune-suppression, recent drug therapy, and chronic neoplastic or infectious disease
- Complement-3 deficiency
- Leucocyte adhesion deficiency
- Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
- Immune-mediated neutropenia
- Cyclic neutropenia in Collies
- Pelger-Huët anomaly
- Trapped neutrophil syndrome
- Pyruvate kinase deficiency
- Hypertrophic osteodystrophy in the Great Dane, Australian Shepherd and Weimeraner
- Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism - secondary immune-mediated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia
Therapeutic options for animals with primary immunodeficiency disease are limited. Most cases are fatal, but symptomatic and antimicrobial therapy can sometimes prolong life for restricted periods.
Crude immunomodulatory drugs are sometimes administered, but the effects of these are poorly documented.
A range of experimental therapies have been attempted in dogs with cyclic haematopoiesis, particularly recombinant cytokine therapy (e.g., canine granulocyte colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor), and bone marrow transplantation.
- Pennylane Collies
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