Vitamin E deficiency

From Dog

Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is an essential vitamin required in the canine diet.

Daily requirement in dogs is 22 IU/kg α-tocopherol daily.

Deficiencies in this vitamin are characterized by reproductive disorders, myopathy, myocarditis and retinal dysplasia.

In the presence of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower levels of α-tocopherol may be insufficient to prevent ceroid lipofuscinosis in dogs.

Vitamin E deficiency is relative rare in dogs due to modern commercial diets, but was reported in puppies fed evaporated milk.

Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) with neuroaxonal degeneration in English Cocker Spaniels is associated with systemic vitamin E deficiency in the absence of dietary insufficiency[1].


  1. McLellan GJ & Bedford PG (2012) Oral vitamin E absorption in English Cocker Spaniels with familial vitamin E deficiency and retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy. Vet Ophthalmol 15(2):48-56