Pneumonia is defined as a severe inflammatory respiratory disease, often associated with secondary bacterial infection.
Infectious agents in guinea pigs include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Clinical symptoms include fever, coughing, dyspnea and in severe cases, hematoptysis and epistaxis.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most commonly diagnosed agent, but Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. zooepidemicus may be involved.
In more rare cases, other bacteria involved include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or adenovirus.
Clinical signs associated with pneumonia include mucopurulent nasal discharge, sneezing, and labored breathing.
Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs, postmortem findings and culture of bacterial organisms. PCR assays may be required to determine viral particle presence.
Treatment usually requires aggressive antimicrobial therapy with enrofloxacin or chloramphenicol.